Sunday, March 19, 2006

Criminal Profiling in America

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS FOR CRIMINAL PROFILING
(You may also be able to take an online, self-scoring, proficiency version of this exam)

1. Most approaches to profiling endorsed by university teaching professors are of what type?
A. investigative
B. forensic
C. sociopsychological*
D. psychological

2. Most researchers agree that the DEFINITION of serial killing should include a minimum of ___ victims.
A. two
B. three*
C. five
D. ten

3. The FBI DEFINITION of serial murder includes the component of:
A. stranger-to-stranger relationship between perpetrator and victim
B. compulsive premeditation or obsessive/compulsive behavior pattern
C. motive not being for material gain
D. a cooling off period in between each murder*

4. The term serial murder was first used sometime around 1982 or 1983, and no one is really certain who first coined the term.
A. True*
B. False

5. Which of the following terms is easiest to confuse with the term serial murder, and in fact did confuse the news media for several years in the 1980's?
A. mass murder
B. multiple murder
C. spree murder
D. lust murder*

6. Which of the following terms best refers to the killing of victims selected by chance?
A. mass murder
B. multiple murder
C. spree murder*
D. lust murder

7. At common law, all murders are 2nd degree unless deliberate and ______________.
A. premeditated*
B. purposive
C. reckless
D. non-negligent

8. The terms psychopath and sociopath are obsolete and have been replaced with the DSM-IV’s use of the term "antisocial personality disorder".
A. True*
B. False

9. The history of applied criminology includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A. typology construction
B. theory development *
C. classification instruments
D. prediction instruments

10. Which criminologist(s) studied all types of crimes and created a typology on whether the offender received group support and had a self-concept as criminal?
A. Roebuck
B. Quay
C. Clinard & Quinney*
D. Ohlin

11. Which criminologist(s) used the words "asocial", "prosocial", and "unsocial" in their typology?
A. Roebuck
B. Quay*
C. Clinard & Quinney
D. Ohlin

12. John Irwin was a criminologist and prison sociologist who studied prisoners’ fantasies.
A. True*
B. False

13. Which sociological concept in criminological theory has been most frequently cited in the homicide and serial murder literature?
A. relative deprivation
B. reference group
C. differential association
D. inadequate socialization*

14. Which of the following is NOT one of the assumptions of profiling?
A. the crime scene reflects the personality
B. the method of operation remains similar
C. trophies and souvenirs taken by the offender reveal the type*
D. the offender’s personality will not change

15. The manner of death in which a victim has been killed is part of which assumption of profiling?
A. the crime scene reflects the personality*
B. the method of operation remains similar
C. trophies and souvenirs taken by the offender reveal the type
D. the offender’s personality will not change

16. The amount of chaos or disorganization at the crime scene is part of which assumption?
A. the crime scene reflects the personality*
B. the method of operation remains similar
C. trophies and souvenirs taken by the offender reveal the type
D. the offender’s personality will not change

17. Modus operandi is mostly determined from evidence left behind in the crime scene.
A. True
B. False*

18. Modus operandi does not change; it mostly stays the same for each crime by the offender.
A. True
B. False*

19. The signature of a perpetrator does not change; it mostly stays the same for each offense.
A. True*
B. False

20. Which of the following would be an example of a modus operandi?
A. The perpetrator may have posed as a drag queen to lure victims
B. The perpetrator murdered the victim in unhurried, systematic fashion*
C. The perpetrator left the victim’s car keys in her clenched hand
D. The victim was found dead with her legs bent backwards

21. Which of the following would be an example of a signature?
A. The perpetrator may have posed as a drag queen to lure victims
B. The perpetrator murdered the victim in unhurried, systematic fashion
C. The perpetrator left the victim’s car keys in her clenched hand*
D. The victim was found dead with her legs bent backwards

22. The definition of the word "pattern" as used in investigative work is:
A. a series of similarities that indicate the same person, usually an M.O. factor*
B. a series of clues that help an investigation move forward
C. a series of leads provided by citizens, usually involving the suspect’s identity
D. a belief about the case based on evidence, patterns, leads, and tips

23. Which of the following might produce an investigative "lead"?
A. laboratory analysis of physical evidence
B. anonymous letter to police headquarters taking credit for the crime
C. surveillance of the "killing field" and "comfort zone" of the perpetrator
D. All of the above*

24. In the case of Unabomber, Ted Kaczinski, the only lead the FBI had for awhile was ________ and it was the first case of law enforcement using the Internet for tips.
A. the pieces of paper using in the packing material of his bombs
B. the results of background checks on mail delivery employees
C. a description of how the suspect looked with sunglasses on*
D. the text of his "Manifesto" against technocratic society

25. "Leads" in investigative work tend to take you in different directions, excluding all others.
A. True
B. False*

26. A "provocation" strategy contained in a profile report would most likely be used to:
A. identify where the suspect lives
B. understand the psychosexual maturity of the suspect
C. guide interrogators to the proper questions to ask
D. draw out the suspect into surveillance or develop new leads*

27. Which of the following is NOT a usual section of a profile report?
A. Age, Sex, Race, Residence, Intelligence, ....
B. Age, Sex, Race, Intelligence, Vehicle, ....
C. Age, Sex, Race, Family, Religion, ....*
D. Age, Sex, Race, Education, Employment, ....

28. Which section of the profile report would most likely mention the suspect’s "comfort zone"?

A. Residence*
B. Vehicle
C. Family
D. Psychosexual development

29. Which section of the report would most likely mention when the suspect will strike again?
A. Residence
B. Vehicle
C. Family
D. Psychosexual development*

30. Which section of the report would most likely mention the suspect’s motivating factors?
A. Residence
B. Vehicle
C. Family*
D. Psychosexual development

31. There are a number of cases where serial killers preferred to operate in pairs, in fact, about one-third of all such killers have at least one partner.
A. True*
B. False

32. Linkage blindness is an especially important problem in law enforcement because serial killers often have the uncanny ability to elude the police for long periods of time.
A. True
B. False*

33. The FBI investigates all serial killings that cross state lines.
A. True
B. False*

34. Federal law enforcement agents often have more experience with homicide cases than state and local law enforcement officials.
A. True
B. False*

35. What sociogenic factors in our society, if any, have been implicated in serial killing?
A. redundant violence in the entertainment industry
B. violence seen as a normal way of dealing with problems
C. anonymity, depersonalization, and spatial mobility
D. all of the above*

36. About 15% of female serial killers are "black widow" killers in it for the money.
A. True*
B. False

37. It is NOT a myth to say that many serial killers have had intense, ambivalent relationships with their mothers, relationships filled with both abuse and sexual attraction.
A. True*
B. False

38. According to Robert Ressler, many serial killers are fascinated with:
A. fire and firesetting
B. movie stars
C. small animals
D. detective work*

39. Geographically mobile serial killers tend to select a specific type of victim.
A. True
B. False*

40. Serial murder is a world-wide phenomenon that occurs in other countries than the U.S.
A. True*
B. False

41. The disorganized asocial offender is a loner mainly because:
A. he is heavily introverted
B. his house is unorganized
C. others perceive him as weird*
D. he prefers to avoid the company of others

42. The disorganized asocial offender usually keeps a secret hiding place in his home.
A. True*
B. False

43. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a disorganized asocial offender?
A. minimal interest in news media
B. drives a clunky car or pickup truck
C. no interest in police work
D. has extensive diurnal (daytime) habits*

44. The organized nonsocial offender is "organized" mainly because:
A. his personality is organized*
B. his house is organized
C. he is comfortable with geographic distance
D. he succeeds in eluding police capture

45. The organized nonsocial offender believes that others are not good enough to be around him.
A. True*
B. False

46. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of an organized nonsocial offender?
A. experiments with self-help groups*
B. is geographically and occupationally mobile
C. returns to crime scene to see what police have done
D. leaves little physical evidence

47. Some serial killers are more "process-focused" than "act-focused". This means:
A. they spend a good deal of time stalking their victim
B. they require a prior relationship with victim
C. they enjoy killing their victim slowly*
D. they derive satisfaction from sex with the victim

48. The Visionary serial killer kills in response to voices from God, the devil, demons, or other sources.
A. True*
B. False

49. The Missionary serial killer is usually an organized nonsocial offender.
A. True*
B. False

50. Female offenders are usually which type of hedonist serial killer?
A. Power-oriented
B. Lust-oriented
C. Thrill-oriented
D. Comfort-oriented*

51. Which two offender types usually have a prior relationship with their victims?
A. Visionary and Missionary
B. Missionary and Lust-oriented
C. Visionary and Comfort-oriented*
D. Comfort-oriented and Thrill-oriented

52. Which three offender types would most likely engage in necrophilia?
A. Visionary, Missionary, and Comfort-oriented
B. Visionary, Lust-oriented, and Power/Control-oriented*
C. Comfort-oriented, Lust-oriented, and Thrill-oriented
D. Lust-oriented, Thrill-oriented, and Power/Control-oriented

53. A offender who uses strangulation accompanied by torture, aberrant sex, mutilation, and object penetration would most likely be a:
A. Missionary type
B. Lust-oriented hedonist
C. Thrill-oriented hedonist
D. Power/Control freak*

54. If you take photos or physical descriptions of the victims of most serial killers, what will strike you is the similarity in look. The most that should be made out of this statement is that:
A. serial killers choose their victims based on sexual attractiveness
B. serial killers tend to hunt and stalk until they find their ideal victim
C. serial killers select victims on the basis of something symbolic in their lives*
D. serial killers are predictable in their victim selection

55. Most serial killers tend to select victims who are vulnerable, easily dominated, and not likely to be missed.
A. True*
B. False

56. It has been theorized that serial killers may be attacking mirror images of themselves in selecting victims who have been neglected or abused as children. This would be an example of which Freudian defense mechanism?
A. repression
B. projection*
C. displacement
D. reaction-formation

57. The fantasies of serial killers usually begin in mid- or late-adolescence.
A. True*
B. False

58. The cycle of obsession/compulsion that serial killers are caught up in is similar to the cycle of violence that wife beaters are caught up in.
A. True*
B. False

59. In the pre-offense stage of violence, stressors tend to multiply and produce combinations of stress symptoms that the offender interprets as qualitatively different.
A. True
B. False*

60. Which part of the obsession/compulsion cycle is the basis of the serial killer’s signature?
A. fantasy*
B. control
C. disassociation
D. reenactment

61. Fantasy refers to a script rehearsed many times in the offender’s mind.
A. True*
B. False

62. Which of the following would be indicative of disassociation?
A. mutilation of the victim beyond recognition
B. careful disposal of the victim to avoid discovery of any remains
C. engaging in a social or civic activity shortly after the crime*
D. social isolation into pornography and masturbation

63. Souvenirs, totems, or trophies kept by the offender are part of which stage in the cycle?
A. fantasy
B. control
C. disassociation
D. reenactment*

64. What percentage of fires are usually of incendiary or suspicious origin?
A. 25%
B. 50%*
C. 70%
D. 80%

65. The majority (51%) of all firesetters are under what age?
A. 14
B. 18*
C. 21
D. 24

66. If the firesetter is the Revenge or profit motive type, what age would they likely be?
A. early 20s
B. late 20s*
C. early 30s
D. late 30s

67. Females account for what percentage of all firesetters?
A. 6%
B. 8%
C. 10%*
D. 12%

68. What is the third (3rd) largest ethnic group to be involved in firesetting?
A. African americans
B. Hispanic americans
C. Asian americans
D. Native americans*

69. Blacks are disproportionately involved in firesetting in comparison to their representation in the general population if the arson is a first-time offense for the arsonist.
A. True*
B. False

70. The majority of arsonists come from what social class background?
A. poverty to lower class
B. lower to working class*
C. working to lower middle class
D. lower middle to middle class

71. Firesetters usually come from the middle class if the arsonist type is:
A. revenge or profit
B. excitement or vandalism*
C. concealment or profit
D. excitement or revenge

72. The vast majority of firesetters fall into what IQ range?
A. 90-110
B. 80-100
C. 100-120
D. 70-90*

73. Almost one-third (33%) of all firesetters have IQs in the subnormal range.
A. True*
B. False

74. The family background of firesetters usually includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A. absent father
B. emotional mother
C. abusive father
D. abusive mother*

75. What grade in school is a typical firesetter likely to be in?
A. 9th grade
B. 10th grade*
C. 11th grade
D. 12th grade

76. What grade in school is the Arson for Vandalism type usually in?
A. 5-7th grade
B. 6-8th grade*
C. 7-9th grade
D. 8-10th grade

77. Arsonists generally appear physically weaker and more feeble than their age counterparts.
A. True*
B. False

78. What type of arsonist is NOT likely to be unemployed?
A. Vandalism
B. Excitement
C. Concealment*
D. Profit

79. If you had to guess, what type of work would an arsonist in general choose?
A. a job that contains lots of danger and excitement
B. a job around people or opportunities for human contact
C. a job that basically involves desk work and very little human contact
D. a job that is subservient to a boss who is both loved and hated*

80. Arsonists generally have lengthy arrest records for what kinds of crimes?
A. minor violence
B. major violence
C. minor property*
D. major property

81. Arsonists generally have a history of drug/alcohol problems.
A. True
B. False*

82. The arsonist’s lack of remorse is typically a symptom of:
A. psychopathy due to inadequate socialization
B. antisocial personality disorder due to insufficient character development
C. obsessive-compulsive complex due to other ritualistic behavior patterns
D. obsessive-compulsive complex due to disassociative fugue states*

83. The majority of arsonists prefer to remain at the crime scene except for:
A. revenge arsonists
B. concealment arsonists
C. profit arsonists
D. all of the above*

84. What percentage of all arsonists fall into the Revenge type category?
A. 17%
B. 22%
C. 30%
D. 41%*

85. What is the SECOND largest group of arsonists?
A. Revenge
B. Excitement*
C. Vandalism
D. Concealment

86. For many years, RAPE was the only crime to have a _______ factor.
A. malice
B. shield
C. nonintent
D. nonconsent*

87. Estimates are that a woman is beaten every ____ seconds in America.
A. 15
B. 20*
C. 30
D. 45

88. Estimates are that a woman is raped every ____ minutes in America.
A. 15
B. 20*
C. 30
D. 45

89. "Rape Shield Laws" prohibit testimony on the victim’s sexual history.
A. True*
B. False

90. On average, how many rape charges involve false reporting?
A. 5%
B. 10%
C. 15%*
D. 20%

91. What type of rapist is typically over 30 years of age?
A. Power reassurance
B. Power assertive
C. Anger retaliation
D. Sadistic*

92. At least 75% of all rapists are under the age of ____.
A. 18
B. 21
C. 25*
D. 28

94. What reason tends to indicate that most (75-90%) rapists are black?
A. Blacks account for this number of rapists who are arrested
B. Blacks account for this number of rapists in prison*
C. Black victims report rape at greater frequencies than white victims
D. The criminal justice system is racist and blacks are more frequently prosecuted

95. What percentage of the time is a rapist usually armed?
A. 15%
B. 20%
C. 25%*
D. 30%

96. When rapists do use a weapon, what is typically the weapon used?
A. gun
B. knife
C. blunt instrument
D. sharp instrument*

97. The majority of rapists come from what social class background?
A. poverty to lower class*
B. lower to working class
C. working to lower middle class
D. lower middle to middle class

98. Rape tends to be an intra-racial crime.
A. True*
B. False

99. The majority of rapists fall into what IQ range?
A. 90-110*
B. 80-100
C. 100-120
D. 70-90

100. Sibling history is usually more important than parental history in the background of rapists.
A. True*
B. False

101. If you had to guess, what kind of mother did rapists usually have?
A. absent
B. neglectful
C. domineering
D. sadistic*

102. If you had to guess, what kind of father did rapists usually have?
A. The kind that was always absent but supported the family
B. The kind that was always absent and failed to support the family*
C. The kind that was always brutal to mother and son
D. The kind that was always brutal to mother but not to son

103. What kind of discipline problems would a rapist usually have had in childhood?
A. incidents involving fighting
B. incidents involving cursing
C. incidents involving disobedience
D. incidents involving pornography*

104. It is NOT uncommon for some rapists to have a college education.
A. True*
B. False

105. What order best represents the common marital pattern of rapists?
A. divorced, married, lives with woman
B. married, divorced, lives with woman*
C. lives with woman, divorced, married
D. lives with woman, married, divorced

106. The majority of rapists work reliably at some job around women.
A. True*
B. False

107. The majority of rapists lack the self-confidence to move up in their careers.
A. True*
B. False

108. What type of rapist usually has a better (white-collar) job?
A. Power reassurance
B. Power assertive
C. Anger retaliation
D. Sadistic*

109. What is the average number of years in prison a rapist serves for each prior offense?
A. 1 year
B. 2 years*
C. 3 years
D. 4 years

110. What kind of mental diagnosis is most often made of serial rapists?
A. Psychopathy
B. Sociopathy
C. Antisocial personality disorder*
D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

111. There are about as many power reassurance types as power assertive types of rapists.
A. True*
B. False

112. What type of rapist usually rapes on a 20-25 day cycle?
A. Power reassurance
B. Power assertive*
C. Anger retaliation
D. Sadistic

113. What type of rapist is most likely to have a job in law enforcement?
A. Power reassurance
B. Power assertive
C. Anger retaliation*
D. Sadistic

114. What type of rapist is most likely to use a blitz attack?
A. Power reassurance
B. Power assertive
C. Anger retaliation*
D. Sadistic

115. What type of rapist is most likely to keep souvenirs?
A. Power reassurance*
B. Power assertive
C. Anger retaliation
D. Sadistic

116. Which of the following terms describes the perversion involving a sexual enjoyment of rectal intercourse?
A. anilingus
B. osphresiophilia
C. sodomy*
D. coprolagnia

117. Which of the following terms describes a person who likes to dress up as a member of the opposite sex?
A. fetishist
B. transsexual
C. transvestite*
D. pygmalionist

118. Which of the following terms describes a woman who practices coitus by wearing a dildo?
A. trabadist*
B. triolist
C. frotteur
D. piqurer

119. Which of the following describes the perversion of obtaining sexual enjoyment by smearing feces all over their body?
A. zoophilia
B. infibulation
C. pederasty
D. coprophilia*

120. Anthropophgy is another word for necrophilia.
A. True
B. False*

121. The practice of piercing the body, especially the sexual areas, or mutilating genitalia for sexual stimulation is called:
A. exhibitionism
B. urolagnia
C. sadomasochism
D. infibulation*

122. Which of the following terms describes a person who likes to rub, bump, or press up against another person for sexual stimulation?
A. pederast
B. frotteur*
C. triolist
D. fellatio

123. Sexual excitement associated with female statues, mannequins, or blow-up dolls is called:
A. anthropophgy
B. pygmalionism*
C. coprophilia
D. necrophilia

124. A child molester who prefers victims who have just reached puberty is called a:
A. pedophile
B. pubaphile
C. hebephile*
D. gerontophile

125. Zoophilia refers to a condition of desiring sexual intercourse with animals.
A. True *
B. False

126. With the crime of statutory rape, the victim is almost always a female.
A. True*
B. False

127. With juvenile rapists, there is a strong chance that the profile characteristics will be similar to those of the ordinary serial rapists with the EXCEPTION that:
A. the victim is more likely to be white
B. the offender is more likely to be white*
C. the means of attack is more likely to involve a seductive ploy
D. the dump site is more likely to be geographically distant

128. The laws of incest cover stepchildren as well as biological children.
A. True*
B. False

129. Incest perpetrators usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
A. underadequate personality
B. denial of facts and responsibility
C. clear ideas about age-appropriate behavior*
D. alcohol-related problems in family

130. Incest perpetrators usually have wives who assume which of the following roles?
A. co-perpetrator
B. geisha*
C. pornographic
D. subcultured

131. Which of the following would be an example of a stressful event that would most likely trigger an incest episode with an incestual offender?
A. failing a course in college
B. hiring a good looking babysitter
C. losing job or means of income
D. wife goes into hospital for lengthy stay*

132. When most people talk of "child molesters", they are usually thinking of which type?
A. statutory rapists
B. juvenile rapists
C. incestual offenders
D. pedophiles*

133. PEDOPHILIA is to FETISH as:
A. LOVE OR ADMIRATION is to OBSESSIVE THOUGHT
B. COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOR is to STRESS-RELATED BEHAVIOR
C. UNCONTROLLABLE URGE is to LOVE OR ADMIRATION
D. SEXUAL DESIRE is to SEXUAL INTEREST*

134. Pedophiles tend to have marriages characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A. frequent going out together between husband and wife*
B. alcohol frequently present in house for guests or visitors
C. frequent use of babysitters to tend the children
D. everyone in the neighborhood knows the marriage is a sham

135. Some pedophiles like to make their victims act like an adult.
A. True
B. False*

136. No one has ever figured out the average, but some pedophiles often brag about having had sex with HOW MANY children?
A. dozens (24-112)
B. hundreds (150-249)
C. hundreds, perhaps over a thousand (250-1050)*
D. thousands (1100-3300)

137. Why do most pedophiles lock into a young age range, say under age 8?
A. they enjoy the sex better at this age
B. they believe the child enjoys the sex better at this age
C. they are trying to minimize the chance of vaginal infection*
D. they find it common for children of this age to recant their testimony

138. Although it is not always 100% true, most pedophiles who prefer boys will usually not molest girls, and vice versa.
A. True*
B. False

139. Which of the following is NOT a typical occupation of a pedophile?
A. youth director at church
B. boy scout leader
C. adult choir director at church*
D. child psychologist

140. Most pedophiles usually have several "prospects" in various stages of seduction at any one time.
A. True*
B. False

141. For profiling purposes, which of the following is NOT one of the three dimensions upon which child molesters differ?
A. method of attack (abduction--seduction)
B. geographic distance (neighborhood stalking--distant stalking)
C. sexual perversion (fondling--cannibalism)
D. organization of crime scene (disorganized--organized)*

142. The profile of a "regressed, situational" child molester would most perfectly fit which of the following?
A. a try-it-all kind of sexual experimentation
B. appearing mentally strange to neighbors and friends
C. a desire for vaginal and anal sex
D. a desire for vaginal and oral sex*

143. The regressed, situational child molester would mostly like choose female victims.
A. True*
B. False

144. Situational child molesters, in general, tend to select almost any vulnerable group as their targets.
A. True*
B. False

145. Preferential child molesters include the sadistic and __________ types.
A. indiscriminate
B. repressed
C. seductive*
D. naive

146. Which type of child molester would most likely mutilate the genitals of their victim?
A. regressed
B. immature
C. sadistic*
D. seductive

147. All types of preferential child molesters are likely to possess child pornography, but only the seductive type uses the Internet to transmit it.
A. True
B. False*

148. Which type of situational child molester collects child pornography like the preferential types?
A. regressed*
B. indiscriminate
C. naive
D. immature

149. The ratio of heterosexual child molesters to homosexual ones is:
A. 6 to 1
B. 9 to 1
C. 11 to 1*
D. 15 to 1

150. Sadistic child molesters tend to be transients and move around the country a lot.
A. True*
B. False

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